Cryosphere Sciences

As part of the Ministry of Earth Science’s endeavour to better understand the cryosphere, studies have been undertaken in all major cryospheric regimes like the Antarctic, Arctic and the Himalaya. Towards this, an Ice Core Laboratory was established in 2005 at NCAOR, Goa.  The Ice Core Laboratory provides a safe and controlled environment to preserve and undertake various types of studies. It also provides a state of the art ice/snow processing and analytical facilities for researchers to conduct various paleo-atmospheric and biogeochemical studies from ice and snow from polar region to understand the its linkage on climatic variations during the past. Some of the major achievements include:

A. Cryosphere processes and climate reconstruction:

Project highlights:

·   During the 25th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (2005-06), a 65 m long core was retrieved from ~1200 m altitude as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in coastal Dronning Maud Land region.

·   During the 26th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (2006-07), GPR studies were conducted and two ice cores of length 75 and 55 m respectively were retrieved from the Nivlisen ice shelf from the DML region.

·    During the 28th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (2008-09), 43 snow cores (~1 m each) were collected along two coasts to inland transects from Ingrid Christensen Coast and central Dronning Maud Land in the eastern Antarctica.

·    During the 29th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (2009-10), GPR survey was conducted at the high accumulation areas near the Wohlthat mountains chain to identify future ice core drilling sites.

·    As part of the first Indian Scientific Expedition to South Pole during (2010-11), 20 snow cores were collected along the Maitri to South Pole transect.

·    During the 33rd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (2013-14), an ice core of 101.4 m length was retrieved from the central Dronning Maud Land region at an elevation of 1506 m.

·   Two glaciers (VestreBroggerbreen and Feiringbreen) in Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard, Arctic) have been monitored continuously since 2008.

·    Six glaciers from Chandra basin, western Himalaya region (SamudraTapu, Bara Shigri, Sutri Dhaka, Batal, Gepang Gath, and Kunzum) with different characteristics and dynamics have been studied since 2013 for their long-term mass balance, energy balance, and hydrological balance characteristics.  

·    A field research station was established at Sutri Dhaka to support the various glaciological studies in Himalaya during 2015-16. 

·    Established Automatic Weather Stations and Hydrological Stations at different sites to understand energy balance and run off/discharge contribution to Indus River

Scientific highlights:

·    Glaciochemical study of the IND 22/B4 ice core sulphate revealed sulphate anomalies related to global volcanic eruption for the past ~500 years and some of the major volcanic events have influenced the short-term climatic conditions in Antarctica (Thamban et al., 2006).

·    Study of tephra from this core revealed presence of a plethora of microbial cells adhered to the surfaces of tephra (Laluraj et al. 2009). These tiny living entities together with the particles on which they are adhered, appears to provide a significant micro-niche in accreted ice, hitherto known.

·   Study based on instrumental data from Halley station as well as an ice core from coastal Dronning Maud Land revealed regional atmospheric circulation changes associated with a reversal in the sign of the relationship between the SAM and near-surface temperatures in coastal parts of East Antarctica (Marshall et al., 2009). The study revealed that the key factor affecting the regional SAM-temperature relationship is the relative magnitude of two climatological low pressure centres to the west and east of the area, which determines the source region of air masses advected into the locality.

·    A first study of Cellulosimicrobiumcellulans bacteria in Antarctic snow revealed that the C. cellulans strain from Antarctic snow demonstrated physiological traits that were markedly different from that of the mesophilic C. cellulans type strains, confirming the importance of modified physiological properties in helping it to survive in extreme cold environments (Antony et al., 2009).

·   Ice core derived proxy climate records from Central Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica suggest that the temperature variations in East Antarctica showed a strong 20th century warming of 1°C and its close relation to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Nino index on temperature, indicating the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (Naik et al., 2010).

·   Biogeochemical analysis of Antarctic snow samples revealed that elevated nutrient concentrations snow may be responsible for the observed enhanced growth of microalgae in snow with subsequent production of bromo-carbons which explains the high bromide concentration in snow (Antony et al., 2010). The activated bromine atoms in the Antarctic atmosphere may react with ozone leading to BrO enhancement with subsequent DMS oxidation and production of sulphur aerosols.

·   Glaciochemical analysis of 55 surface snow deposits from the Ingrid Christensen Coast revealed that the sea spray contribution dominated the supply of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+, whereas the estimated enrichment factors suggest that crustal input was the primary source for Ca2+ (Thamban et al., 2010).

·   The nitrate (NO3-) records the IND-22/B4 ice core revealed synchronous changes with records of solar activity, showing relatively enhanced nitrate concentration during periods of reduced solar activity like the Dalton Minimum (~1790-1830 AD) and Maunder Minimum (~1640-1710 AD). The study suggest that the nitrate concentrations in Antarctic ice cores appears to be influenced by production rates, processes in the atmosphere, as well as the temperature at the site of precipitation (Laluraj et al., 2010; Thamban, 2010).

·    Study on the distribution and source pathways of environmentally critical trace metals in coastal Antarctic snow revealed that while contributions from natural sources are still dominant in Antarctica, anthropogenic contamination related to the ever increasing logistic activities is locally significant (Thamban and Thakur, 2012).

·    Glaciochemical studies on Antarctic snow for the first time also demonstrated the influence of the degree of slope of the ice sheet on the distribution of sea salt ions in Antarctic snow (Mahalinganathan et al., 2012).

·   Ice core based temperature reconstructions during the past five centuries also revealed substantial warming by 0.6-1°C per century, with greatly enhanced warming during the last few decades (~0.4°C per decade) (Thamban et al., 2013).

·    Integrating the proxy temperature data using various proxy records across seven continental-scale regions, the study revealed an overall cooling trend across nearly all continents during the last two thousand years (PAGES 2k Consortium, 2013). This cooling trend was reversed by distinct warming, beginning in some regions at the end of the 19th century.

·    The dust profile of the IND-25/B5 revealed that that dust influx to the East Antarctica was nearly doubled during the late 20th century, in parallel with increasing wind speed of westerlies in southern hemisphere associated with the positive Southern Annual Mode and widespread desertification in Patagonia (Laluraj et al., 2014).

·    Molecular composition of the organic matter in Antarctic snow revealed that organic carbon in Antarctic ice sheet is a quantitatively important dissolved carbon source to coastal ecosystems and have two major sources: a). in situ microbial processes; b). remotely supplied input from terrestrial vascular plants-derived materials (Antony et al., 2011; 2014)

·    High resolution records of deuterium excess (d-excess), methane sulfonic acid (MSA) and ss-Na+ flux in an ice core from coastal Antarctica revealed dramatic increase in SIE was observed in the Weddell Sea sector during 1940-1980  (Rahaman et al. 2015). The study supports a role of SAM and its teleconnection to ENSO in controlling moisture transport as well as SIE in oceanic regions surrounding Antarctica.

·   All the glaciers under observation in the Chandra basin (Western Himalaya), during the last 2-3 years have shown cumulative negative mass balance (Sharma et al, 2016; Patel et al, 2016) which are similar to other Himalayan glacier behaviors in term of retreat.

·   Debris cover is one of the significant controlling factors for spatial variability of ablation rate.  In contrast to the normal ablation pattern, debris covered glaciers experienced an inverse ablation rate with altitude. Thicker debris protect ice surface efficiently from melting than thin debris (Sharma et al, 2016; Patel et al, 2016).

·    A critical assessment and evaluation of glacial melt fraction in the Bhagirathi basin suing stable isotope data revealed that the glacial melt fraction decreases from the snout of the Gangotri glacier to Devprayag during the pre-monsoon and the post-monsoon period, whereas surface run off in the form of snow melt is the major fraction during the pre-monsoon and in the form of rainfall during the postmonsoon period in the Bhagirathi river.

·    Pre- and post-monsoon samples reveal a decreasing trend of depletion of δ18O in the river water from glacier snout (Gaumukh) to the confluence of the Bhagirathi river with the Alaknandariver near Devprayag. Calculations of existing glacial melt fraction (30% at Rishikesh) are not consistent with the reported glacial thinning rates. It is contended that the choice of unsuitable end-members in the three component mixing model causes the overestimation of glacial melt component in the river discharge. Careful selection of end members provides results (11% at Devprayag) that are consistent with the expected thinning rates (Khan et al., 2016).


B. Satellite based cryosphere studies:

Project highlights:

· Sea Ice advisory operationalized for safer ship navigation during 32nd to 35th ISEA: 

o  SAC has initiated providing the sea ice advisory for safer ship navigation since 32nd ISEA (Rajak et al., 2014) based on the requirements of NCAOR. Various improvements have been made based on the feedback received from NCAOR, such as utilization of SARAL AltiKa derived free-board (Maheshwari et al., 2015) in 33rd ISEA and Climatic Sea Ice Occurrence Probability (SIOP) data (Rajak et al., 2015).

  ·   Operationalized DEM products for Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis 

o  NCAOR designed a first generation accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) for Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica, using interferometric and photogrammetric techniques (Jawak and Luis, 2012)

o  Synthesized a precise DEMs by synergistic use of multitemporal RAMP, Cartosat-1 (Indian satellite) ICESat and ground reference data (GPS) (Jawak and Luis, 2014)

o  These indigenous DEMs gained a significant attention internationally, as they had improved vertical accuracies compared to existing Antarctic DEMs (Jawak and Luis, 2012; Jawak and Luis, 2014).

  ·  Developed new applications of DEM in cryospheric land cover classification

o   Utilization of Indian satellite RISAT-1 C-band imagery for geospatial mapping of cryospheric surface features in the Antarctic environment (Jawak et al., 2015d)

o   Geospatial mapping of vegetation in the Antarctic environment using very high resolution WorldView-2 data (Jawak and Luis, 2013a; Jawakand Luis, 2013d; Jawak and Luis, 2013e; Jawak et al; 2013a).

o   Employed very high resolution satellite imagery for object -oriented mapping of supra-glacial debris in the Antarctic environment (Jawak et al., 2015b; Jawak et al; 2013b).

·      Developed of an accurate method for bathymetry extraction of Antarctic lakes by synergetic use of DEM and multispectral satellite data.

o   Mapped shoreline of more than 100 lakes on Larsemann hills and 10 lakes on Schirmacher Oasis with an accuracy of 1 meter, as a reference data for validation of algorithms for semi-automatic extraction of lake features using satellite data (Jawak and Luis, 2014; Jawak et al., 2015c; Jawak et al., 2015a).

o   Developed 3 new geospatial methods for geo-information extraction in the cryospheric environment, viz. (1) spectral index ratio method, (2) ensemble classification method, (3) customized normalized difference water index (cNDWI) for lake feature extraction (Jawakand Luis, 2013a; Jawak and Luis, 2013b; Jawak and Luis, 2013c; Jawak and Luis, 2013d; Jawak and Luis, 2014).

Scientific highlights:

o   The southward topographic meandering of Antarctic Circumpolar Current facilitates warming by 1degC of the region east of 20°E during austral winter, thereby reducing the sea ice; these processes reduce the strength of eastward propagating positive seaice anomalies and decouple the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in the region east of 40°E (Nuncio and Luis, 2011; Nuncio et al, 2011; Luis and Ravindra, 2008)

o   Investigation of the impact of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the southern hemisphere sea-ice variability suggested that the IOD influence is maximum in the region west of the Ross sea (Nuncio and Yuan, 2015). When ENSO is removed, sea-ice in the Indian Ocean (near 60°E) increases because of cold outflows west of low pressure centres while sea-ice near 90°E decreases due to the warm advection west of a high pressure centre located south of Australia.

o   ENSO-driven Polar Cell variability plays a crucial role influencing Antarctic sea ice as it interacts with other climate modes, which has a combined impact at the interannual time scale (Luis, 2013; Teleti and Luis, 2013; Teleti and Luis, 2016).

o   Assessment of surface melting using scatterometer data:The association of scatterometer backscatter observations with the snow-pit observations helped in the investigation of inter-annual variations in surface melting carried out using space-borne scatterometer data (Oza et al., 2011).

o   Ice calving and deformation from ice margins detected using RISAT-1 data (33rd ISEA):Spatio-temporal change detection was carried out using RISAT-1 SAR data. Large scale disintegration was reported at two prominent glacier tongues namely Polar Record Glacier and Polar Times Glacier. The results were verified observations made during 33rd ISEA. 

o   Test and evaluation of indigeneous field radiometer (26th ISEA): Test and evaluation of ingeniously designed and developed field radiometer was carried out at Sankalp site near Maitri (Manjul et al., 2010). Analysis of field data collected suggested for potential CAL/VAL site for high resolution optical sensors (Manjul et al., 2015).



·    Antony, R., Grannas, A.M., Willoughby, A.S., Sleighter, R.L., Thamban, M., Hatcher, P.G. (2014). Origin and Sources of Dissolved Organic Matter in Snow on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Environmental Science and Technology, 48 (11): 6151–6159.

·    Antony, R., K. Mahalinganathan, K.P. Krishnan, and Thamban M. (2011), Microbial preference for different size classes of organic carbon: A study from Antarctic snow, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment DOI 10.1007/s10661-011-2391-1.

·    Antony, R., K. Mahalinganathan, Thamban, M. and S. Nair (2011), Organic carbon in Antarctic snow: spatial trends and possible sources, Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (23), pp 9944–9950, DOI: 10.1021/es203512t.

·    Antony, R., K.P. Krishnan, Laluraj, C. M., Thamban M., Dhakephalkar,  P.K.,  Engineer, A. S. and Shivaji, S. (2012), Diversity and physiology of culturable bacteria associated with a coastal Antarctic ice core, Microbiological Researchdoi:10.1016/j.micres.2012.03.003.

·   Antony, R., K.P. Krishnan, Sabu Thomas, Wilson Peter Abraham and Thamban M. (2009). Phenotypic and molecular identification ofCellulosimicrobiumcellulansisolated from Antarctic snow. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology Volume 96, Issue 4, Page 627.

·    Antony, R., Thamban, M., K.P. Krishnan, K. Mahalinganathan (2010). Is cloud seeding in coastal Antarctica linked to biogenic bromine and nitrate variability in snow? Environmental Research Letters, 5: 014009, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014009

·    Jawak, S. D. and Luis, A. J. (2011). Applications of WorldView-2 satellite data for Extraction of Polar Spatial Information and DEM of Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, 2011 International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Neural Computing, IEEE, vol 2, pp 148-151.

·    Jawak, S. D. and Luis, A. J. (2013e). Validation of high-density airborne LIDAR-based feature extraction using very high resolution optical remote sensing data, Advances in Remote Sensing, 2(4), 297-311.doi:10.4236/ars.2013.24033.

·    Jawak, S.D. and Luis, A.J. (2012). Synergistic use of multitemporal RAMP, ICESat and GPS to construct an accurate DEM of the Larsemann Hills region, Antarctica. J. of Advances in Space Research, DOI:10.1016/j.asr.2012.05.004.

·    Jawak, S.D., and Luis, A.J. (2014). A semiautomatic extraction of Antarctic lake features using WorldView-2 imagery, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 80, No. 10, pp. 939-952, DOI: 10.14358/PERS.80.10939. 

·    Jawak, S.D., Bidawe, T.G., and Luis, A.J. (2015d). A review on applications of imaging synthetic aperture radar with a special focus on cryospheric studies. Advances in Remote Sensing, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 163-175. DOI:10.4236/ars.2015.42014.

·    Jawak, S.D., Devliyal, P., and Luis, A.J. (2015b). A comprehensive review on pixel oriented and object oriented methods for information extraction from remotely sensedsatellite images with a special emphasis on cryospheric applications. Advances in Remote Sensing, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 177-19. DOI: 10.4236/ars.2015.43015.

·    Jawak, S.D., Kulkarni, K., and Luis, A.J. (2015c). A review on extraction of lakes from remotely sensed optical satellite data with a special focus on cryospheric lakes. Advances in Remote Sensing,Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 196-213. DOI: 10.4236/ars.2015.43016.

·    Jawak, S.D., Luis, A.J. (2013a). Very-high resolution remotely sensed satellite data for improved land cover extraction of Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica. J. of Applied Remote Sensing, 0001;7(1):073460. DOI:10.1117/1.JRS.7.073460.

·   Jawak, S.D., Luis, A.J. (2013b). A comprehensive evaluation of PAN-sharpening algorithms coupled with resampling methods for image synthesis of very high resolution remotely sensed satellite data. Advances in Remote Sensing, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 332-344. DOI: 10.4236/ars.2013.24036.

·    Jawak, S.D., Luis, A.J. (2013c). Improved land cover mapping using high resolution multiangle 8-band WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing data. J. of Applied Remote Sensing, 7(1), 073573, DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.7.073573.

·    Jawak, S.D., Luis, A.J. (2013d). A spectral index ratio-based Antarctic land-cover mapping using hyperspatial 8-band WorldView-2 imagery. Polar Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 18–38, ISSN 1873-9652, DOI:10.1016/j.polar.2012.12.002.

·   Jawak, S.D., Luis, A.J., Panditrao, S.N., Khopkar, P.S., and Jadhav, P.S. (2013b). Advancement in land cover classification using very high resolution remotely sensed 8-band WorldView-2 satellite data. International J. of Earth Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 0974-5904, Vol. 06, No. 06(02), pp. 1742-1749.

·    Khan, A.A., Pant, N.C., Sarkar, A., Tandon, S.K., Thamban M. and Mahalinganathan K. (2015). The Himalayan cryosphere- a critical assessment and evaluation of glacial melt fraction in the Bhagirathi basin. Geoscience Frontiers,

·    Laluraj, C.M., Krishnan, K. P., Thamban, M., Mohan, R., Naik, S. S., D’Souza, W., R. Ravindra and A. Chaturvedi. (2009). Origin and characterisation of microparticles in an ice core from the Central Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: DOI 10.1007/s10661-008-0212-y.

·    Laluraj, C.M., Thamban, M. and Satheesan K. (2014). Dust and associated geochemical fluxes in an ice core from the coastal East Antarctica and its linkages with Southern hemisphere climate variability. Atmospheric Environment, 90: 23-32.

·    Laluraj, C.M., Thamban, M., S.S. Naik, B.L. Redkar, A. Chaturvedi and R. Ravindra. (2011). Nitrate records of a shallow ice core from East Antarctica: atmospheric processes, preservation and climatic implications. The Holocene, 21: 351-356.

·    Luis, A. J. (2013). Past, Present and Future Climate of Antarctica, International J. of Geosciences,  4, 959-977

·    Luis, A. J. and Ravindra, R. (2008). Quikscat-based momentum flux analysis over the Southern Ocean, Indian J. of Marine Science, 37(1), pp. 1-10. 

·    Mahalinganathan, K., Thamban, M., Laluraj, C.M., Redkar, B.L. (2012). Relation between surface topography and sea-salt snow chemistry from Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The Cryosphere,6, 505–515. 

·    Maheshwari, M., Mahesh, C., Singh, R. K. K., Jayaprasad, P., Rajak, D. R., Oza, S. R., Raj Kumar and Sharma, R., 2015. Estimation of sea ice freeboard from SARAL/AltiKa data. Marine Geodesy, 38:487-496.

·    Manjul, S. S., Narayanbabu, P., Kuriakose, S. A. And Samudraiah, D. R. M., 2015. Measurement of terrestrial and aerial solar spectral radiations in Antarctica for the vicarious calibration of the Resourcesat-1 AWiFS sensor. Int. J. Remote Sens., 36:5948-5958

·    Manjul, S. S., Narayanbabu, P., Samudraiah, D. R. M., 2010. Design and development of field radiometer for ground truth data collection at Antarctica. J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens., 38:193-202.

·   Manoj, M.C., Thamban, M., N. Basavaiah, R. Mohan (2011). Evidence for climatic and oceanographic controls on terrigenous sediment supply to the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean over the past 63,000 years. Geo-Marine Letters, DOI 10.1007/s00367-011-0267-6.

·   Marshall, G.J., Battista, S., Naik, S.S., and Thamban, M. (2011). Analysis of a regional change in the sign of the SAM-temperature relationship in Antarctica. Climate Dynamics, 36 (1-2). 277-287.

·    Naik, S. S. Thamban, M., Laluraj, C.M., Redkar, B.L. and Chaturvedi,A. (2010). A century of climate variability in the central Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica and its relation to Southern Annular Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres), 115, D16102, doi:10.1029/2009JD013268. 

·   Naik, S.S., Thamban, M., Rajakumar, A., Laluraj, C.M., and Chaturvedi, A. (2010). Influence of climatic teleconnections on the temporal isotopic variability as recorded in a firn core from the central Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 119, Pages: 41-49.

·    Nuncio, M. and Luis, A. J. (2011). Role of westerlies and thermohaline characteristics on sea-ice extent in the Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica, J. Geological Society of India,78, pp.211-216

·    Nuncio,M., Luis, A. J. and Yuan, X. (2011). Topographic meandering of Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in the iceocean atmosphere System, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L13708, doi:10.1029/2011GL046898.

·    Oza, S. R., Singh, R. K. K., Vyas, N. K. And Sarkar, Abhijit, 2011. Study of Inter-annual variations in surface melting over Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, using space-borne scatterometer data. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 120: 329-336.

·    PAGES 2k Consortium (M. Ahmed, K. J. Anchukaitis, A. Asrat, H. P. Borgaonkar, M. Braida, B. M. Buckley, U. Büntgen, B. M. Chase, D. A. Christie, E. R. Cook, M. A. J. Curran, H. F. Diaz, J. Esper, Z-X. Fan, N. P. Gaire, Q. Ge, J. Gergis, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, S. W. Grab, N. Graham, R. Graham, M. Grosjean, S. T. Hanhijärvi, D. S. Kaufman*, T. Kiefer, K. Kimura, A. A. Korhola, P. J. Krusic, A. Lara, A.-M. Lézine, F. C. Ljungqvist, A. M. Lorrey, J. Luterbacher, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. McCarroll., J. R. McConnell, N. P. McKay, M. S. Morales, A. D. Moy, R. Mulvaney, I. A. Mundo, T. Nakatsuka, D. J. Nash, R. Neukom, S. E. Nicholson, H. Oerter, J. G. Palmer, S. J. Phipps, M. R. Prieto, A. Rivera, M. Sano, M. Severi, T. M. Shanahan, X. Shao, F. Shi, M. Sigl, J. E. Smerdon, O. N. Solomina, E. J. Steig, B. Stenni, Thamban, M.,Valerie Trouet, C. S.M. Turney, M. Umer, T. van Ommen, D. Verschuren, A. E. Viau, R. Villalba, B. M. Vinther, L. von Gunten, S. Wagner, E. R. Wahl, H. Wanner, J. P. Werner, J. W.C. White, K. Yasue, E. Zorita), 2013. Continental-scale temperature variability during the last two millennia, Nature Geoscience,DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1797.

·    Rahaman, W., Thamban, M. and Laluraj, C.M. (2015). Twentieth Century sea ice variability in the Weddell Sea and its effect on moisture transport: Evidence from a coastal East Antarctic ice core record. The Holocene (in Press)

·     Rajak, D. R., Singh, R. K. K., Jayaprasad, P., Oza, S. R., Sharma, R. And Raj Kumar, 2015. Sea ice occurrence probability data and its applications over the Antarctic. J. Geomatics, 9:193-197.

·     Rajak, D. R., Singh, R. K. K., Maheshwari, M., Jayaprasad, P., Oza, S. R., Beg, J., Sharma, R. And Raj Kumar, 2014. Sea ice advisory using   Earth observation data for ship routing during Antarctic expedition. Scientific Report, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad, India. Doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.5073.8725.

·    Sharma, P., Patel, L. K., R. RavindraA. T. Singh, K. Mahalinganathan, Thamban, M., (2015). Role of debris cover to control specific ablation of adjoining Batal and Sutri Dhaka glaciers in Chandra Basin (Himachal Pradesh) during peak ablation season. Journal of Earth System Science (in Press)

·    Teleti, P. R. and Luis, A. J. (2013). Sea Ice Observations in Polar Regions: Evolution ofTechnologies in Remote Sensing, International J. of Geosciences, 2013, 4, pp.1031-1050.

·    Teleti, P.R., and Luis, A. J. (2016). The role of the southern hemisphere polar cell on Antarctic sea ice variability, International J. Geosciences (in press).

·    Thamban M., Laluraj, C. M., Naik, S. S., Chaturvedi, A. (2011). Reconstruction of Antarctic climate change using ice core proxy records from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Journal of Geological Society of India, 78: 19-29.

·    Thamban M.,Naik, S. S., Laluraj, C. M., and Ravindra R. (2012). High resolution reconstructions of recent warming using instrumental and ice core records from coastal Antarctica. Mausam, 62: 665-672.

·    Thamban M., Naik, S. S., Laluraj, C. M., Chaturvedi, A., Ravindra, R., (2012). Antarctic climate variability during the past few centuries based on ice core records from coastal Dronning Maud Land and its implications on the recent warming. In: R. Sinha and R. Ravindra, “Earth System Processes and Disaster Management”, Society of Earth Scientists Series, Springer, 2013, XII, 239 p.

·    Thamban, M. and Roseline C. Thakur (2012). Trace metal chemistry of surface snow from Ingrid Christensen Coast, East Antarctica - Spatial variability and possible anthropogenic contributions.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2764-0.

·    Thamban, M., C. M. Laluraj, K. Mahalinganathan, B. L. Redkar, S. S. Naik and P. K. Shrivastava (2010). Glacio-chemistry of surface snow from the Ingrid Christensen Coast, East Antarctica, and its environmental implications. Antarctic Science, 22(4), 435–441

·   Thamban, M.,Chaturvedi, A. Rajakumar, A. Naik, S.S. D'Souza, W. Singh, A. Rajan, S. Ravindra, R. (2006). Aerosol perturbations related to volcanic eruptions during the past few centuries as recorded in an ice core from the Central Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Current Science, vol. 91, no9, pp. 1200-1207.